There are simply no safe levels of exposure to toxins. Part 2 Jet Fuel


Part 2 of 6- More information We the People are going to need to know about hazardous materials we have been told are safe or are used at safe levels but meanwhile have been poisoning us. Read on and join in- we welcome your assistance in our effort to bring to light the truth about how we are being killed by these safe levels of hazardous materials and again we say there simply are no safe levels of exposure to toxins.


PRODUCT NAME(S): Kerosene – Dual Purpose, K1, Dyed K1, Diesel Fuel – No. 1, Artic, Dyed Highway, On-Road, Off-Road Jet Fuel – A, B, A-1, A-50, High Sulfur, Military, Jet A & B Aviation Turbine Fuel, Jet A-1 Aviation Fuel (Combustible), Aviation Fuel (Flammable), Jet Q Turbine Fuel, Turbine Fuel No. 1, FO #1, Low Aromatic Feedstock, SRK Solvent, Arctic Grade Fuel Oil (DFA), Range Oil, Coal Oil, JP-4, JP-5, JP-8

Jet fuel Contains or May Contain:

Kerosene8008-20-60 – 100100 (NIOSH)
Petroleum distillate, aliphatic64742-47-80 – 100100525 Sulfur, precipitated7704-34-90 – 0.5015 Naphthalene (a,b,c,d)91-20-30-3105010Yes100
Ethylene glycol monomethylether (a,e)109-86-40 – 0.152580516 (skin)
Benzene (a,b,c,e,f,g)71-43-20 – 1.810.5Yes10
Xylene (mixed) (a,b,c)1330-20-70-1100435100Yes1000
Cyclohexane (a,b,c)110-82-70 – 0.113001050300Yes1000
Ethylbenzene (a,c)100-41-40 – 0.11100435125545Yes1000 Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4 (a)95-63-60 – 0.7825125Yes
Toluene (a,b,c,e,g)108-88-30 – 0.1820050Yes1000 n-Hexane110-54-30 – 0.04500180050176

 (a,c) See Section 15
(b) Indicates that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) has determined the waste for this chemical is listed as hazardous and must be handled according to regulations in 40 CFR 260-281.
(d) Product is listed or defined as a marine pollutant in IMDG Code or 49 CFR 172.101 Appendix B, List of Marine Pollutants and must be classified as an Environmentally Hazardous Substance, Class 9, in addition to any other defined hazards for this product.

 We discussed Benzene in Part 1There are simply no safe levels of exposure to toxins. Part 1 Introduction

Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid with a distinctive smell. Toluene occurs naturally in crude oil and in the tolu tree. It is also produced in the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil and making coke from coal. Toluene is used in making paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, adhesives, and rubber and in some printing and leather tanning processes. Toluene enters the environment when you use materials that contain it. It can also enter surface water and groundwater from spills of solvents and petroleum products as well as from leaking underground storage tanks at gasoline stations and other facilities.

Potential Health Effects


Inhalation may cause irritation of the upper respiratory tract. Symptoms of overexposure may include fatigue, confusion, headache, dizziness and drowsiness. Peculiar skin sensations (e. g. pins and needles) or numbness may be produced. Very high concentrations may cause unconsciousness and death.


Swallowing may cause abdominal spasms and other symptoms that parallel over-exposure from inhalation. Aspiration of material into the lungs can cause chemical pneumonitis, which may be fatal.

Skin Contact:

Causes irritation. May be absorbed through skin.

Eye Contact:

Causes severe eye irritation with redness and pain.

Chronic Exposure:

Reports of chronic poisoning describe anemia, decreased blood cell count and bone marrow hypoplasia. Liver and kidney damage may occur. Repeated or prolonged contact has a defatting action, causing drying, redness, dermatitis. Exposure to toluene may affect the developing fetus.

Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions:

Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or impaired liver or kidney function may be more susceptible to the effects of this substance. Alcoholic beverage consumption can enhance the toxic effects of this substance

Petroleum distillates:

These compounds, which are also called hydrocarbons or petrochemicals, are extracted by distillation during the refining of crude oil, and they’re used as heating agents, propellants (gasoline) and solvents.

A study in the American Journal of Epidemiology found that being exposed to petroleum distillates increases the risk of developing undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that involves a disorder of the body’s connective tissues.

UCTD could include symptoms from, or evolve into any combination of, connective tissue diseases like lupus, scleroderma, polymyositis, vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome or fibromyalgia, yet has not met the official diagnostic criteria to be diagnosed as such.

According to the EPA, “Products that contain petroleum distillates should be used carefully. Wear gloves to avoid skin contact and avoid breathing vapors of volatile compounds.”

That’s because, in addition to raising the risk of UCTD, petroleum distillates can cause chemical pneumonia and can interfere with the lungs’ functions-even resulting in death-if inhaled or swallowed. They can also irritate the skin and cause sensitivity to light.

Further, petroleum distillates pose the greatest risk when they’re breathed in. According to the EPA, even small amounts can cause harm.

Naphthalene is used in the production of phthalic anhydride; insect repelent, it is also used in mothballs. Acute (short-term) exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact is associated with hemolytic anemia, damage to the liver, and neurological damage. Cataracts have also been reported in workers acutely exposed to naphthalene by inhalation and ingestion.

Chronic (long-term) exposure of workers and rodents to naphthalene has been reported to cause cataracts and damage to the retina.  Hemolytic anemia has been reported in infants born to mothers who “sniffed” and ingested naphthalene (as mothballs) during pregnancy.  Available data are inadequate to establish a causal relationship between exposure to naphthalene and cancer in humans. 

EPA has classified naphthalene as a Group C, possible human carcinogen. Please Note: The main sources of information for this fact sheet are the EPA’s Toxicological Review of Naphthalene and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s (ATSDR’s)


The primary use for naphthalene is in the production of phthalic anhydride.  However, o-xylene is replacing naphthalene as the preferred raw material for phthalic anhydride production. Other uses of naphthalene include carbamate insecticides, surface active agents and resins, as a dye intermediate, as a synthetic tanning agent, as a moth repellent, and in miscellaneous organic chemicals.

Sources and Potential Exposure

Naphthalene is released to the air from the burning of coal and oil and from the use of mothballs.

Health Hazard Information

Acute Effects:

Acute exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact is associated with hemolytic anemia, damage to the liver, and, in infants, neurological damage.  Symptoms of acute exposure include headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, malaise, confusion, anemia, jaundice, convulsions, and coma.

Chronic inflammation of the lung, chronic nasal inflammation, hyperplasia of the respiratory epithelium in the nose, and metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium were reported in mice chronically exposed to naphthalene via inhalation.

Diarrhea, lethargy, hunched posture, rough coats, decreased body weight, and lesions in the kidneys and thymus were observed in rats and mice chronically exposed via gavage (experimentally placing the chemical in the stomach).

Long-term exposure to jet fuel: an investigation.

Long-term exposure to jet fuel: an investigation on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system.

Knave B, Persson HE, Goldberg JM, Westerholm P.


In the present study the results of a neurological and neurophysiological health examination of 29 aircraft factory workers chronically exposed to jet fuel vapors are presented. The exposed subjects were classified into a heavily exposed and a less heavily exposed group. The examination included a standardized clinical neurological examination, measurements of the conduction velocities in the peripheral nerves, and threshold determinations of vibratory sensations in the extremities. All 13 persons examined in the heavily exposed group and 7 of the 16 in the less heavily exposed group stated that they had repeatedly experienced acute effects (dizziness, respiratory tract symptoms, heart palpitations, a feeling of pressure on the chest, nausea, headache) of the jet fuel vapors in the inhaled air. A high rate of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy was observed both in the heavily exposed group and in the two groups combined in comparison with reference groups. Considering the presented facts concerning (a) the acute effects on repeated occasions, (b) the high rates of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy, and (c) the differences in the observations made between the two groups with varying degrees of exposure to jet fuel, the authors interpreted the results as indicative of a possible effect of long-term exposure to jet fuel on the nervous system.

Short-Term Exposure To Jet Fuel Results in Longterm Immunotoxicity -David T. Harris
Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona -Debbie Sakiestewa

Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona-Raymond F. Robledo

Department of Pediatrics University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona-Mark Wittent

Department of Pediatrics University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona

Chronic exposure to jet fuel has been shown to have adverse effects on human liver function, to cause emotional dysfunction, to cause abnormal electroencephalograms, to cause shortened attention spans, and to decrease sensorimotor speed. Due to the decision by the United States Air Force to implement the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is both critical and necessary. Exposure to potential environmental toxicants such as JP-8 may have significant effects on host systems beyond those readily visible (i.e., physiology, cardiology, respiratory, etc.); e.g., the immune system. Previous studies have shown that short-term, low concentration JP-8 exposure had significant effects on the immune system, which should have serious consequences for the exposed host in terms of susceptibility to infectious agents. If these alterations in immune function were long-lasting, it might also result in an increased likelihood of development and/or progression of cancer, as well as autoimmune disease.

In the current study, mice were exposed for 1 hlday for 7 days to a moderate (1000 mg/m 3) and a high (2500 mg/m3) concentration of aerosolized JP-8 jet fuel to simulate occupational exposures. One to 28 days after the last exposure the mice were analyzed for effects of the exposure on their immune systems. It was observed that decreases in viable immune cell numbers and immune organ weights found at 24 h after exposure persisted for extended periods of time. Further, JP-8 exposure resulted in significantly decreased immune function, as analyzed by mitogenesis assays, which persisted for up to 4 weeks post-exposure. Thus, short-term exposure of mice to JP-8 jet fuel caused significant toxicological effects on the immune system, which were long-lasting and persistent. It appears that the immune system may be the most sensitive indicator of toxicological damage due to JP-8 exposure. Such long-term changes in immune status may have significant effects on the health of the exposed individual.

Part 3 will be World Trade Center Rescue Workers.


4 Responses

  1. […] the original here: There are simply no safe levels of exposure to toxins. Part 2 Jet … By admin | category: University of ARIZONA | tags: arizona, immunology, microbiology, […]

  2. Please visit
    Merle Savage site
    She authored the book Silence in the Sound.

    And Riki Ott
    Much info and a petition

  3. I am a WTC rescuer with End Stage Renal Disease.
    I was onsite as the 2nd tower fell and worked at the site daily until November. My Kidney functionwas normal 3/2001 and began a gradual decline in function shortly after the attacks. NYC believes there is no correlation between my condition and my exposure!
    LOL. I look forward to part 3

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